Conventions –parts of the ECTS adopted at the national level without changes:
a) The duration of undergraduate higher education is 4 years, which corresponds to the established number of 60 academic credits per year of full-time study.
The duration of master’s higher education is 1-2 years and corresponds to 60-120 academic credits.
- b) An academic year of full-time study is equal to 60 credits, and a semester, respectively, is 30 credits.
- c) The standard duration of training for one unit of course (discipline)/module is a semester.
- d) Credits are awarded for course/module units and other activities (eg practical placements, licensee examination), which are assessed separately.
- e) Credits are given as full numerical values.
- f) In the process of planning and accumulating credits, the concept of “average student” is used – a student who implements the annual curriculum in full and on time, is assessed with passing grades and accumulates established credits: 30 per semester and 60 per year.
- g) The average student’s annual workload is approximately 1500–1800 hours, including classroom hours and individual work hours. In the national higher education system, the annual student workload is approximately 1800 hours. One work credit is equal to 25-30 study hours.
- h) Credits are awarded in total for one unit of course/module/curriculum activity and only if the student completes the entire workload required by all modes of study and meets the admission requirements with a minimum grade.
- i) Credits earned at Institutions and accredited programs are recognized and potentially offset at other Institutions and programs.
- The accumulation of credits provides inviolability and if they are obtained in universities and accredited programs, they provide an opportunity for continuous education.
Basic concepts of ECTS
1.1 Academic ECTS credits
Academic ECTS credits are full numerical values ranging from 1 to 60, which are assigned to each unit of course/module/activity prescribed by the curriculum. These loans are not divisible and cannot be obtained in stages.
The content of the educational program must correspond to at least 240 ECTS credits.
The system for converting the Kazakh credit system to the European one is as follows:
10 hours auditorium classes (lectures, practical and laboratory classes)
1 ECTS credit = 10 hours of MTSP
10 hours SRS
15 hours auditorium classes (lectures, practical and laboratory classes)
1 credit of the Republic of Kazakhstan = 15 hours of SRSP
15 hours SRS.
1 RK credit = 1.5 ECTS credits for a bachelor’s degree.
For specialized master’s programs – 1 RK credit = 2 ECTS credits, for scientific and pedagogical programs – 1 RK credit = 3 ECTS credits.
For doctoral studies – 1 RK credit = 4 ECTS credits.
Thus, the transfer of working curricula (WCU) from the Kazakh credit system to the European system will be carried out without changing the hourly occupancy rate.
1.2 Rules for handling educational loans:
- a) Allocation of loans
Each component of the curriculum – course/module unit, practical internship, exam, etc. a certain number of credits is assigned from the total number provided for this program. The allocation of credits is carried out depending on the number of classroom hours (lectures, seminars, laboratory work, independent work), including session time (exams) and is recorded in the curriculum.
The allocation of credits for one discipline cannot be carried out in parts.
- b) The provision of credits is carried out simultaneously with the promotion of a course unit/module or work completed independently. Thus, when granting loans, it is documented that the intended workload was implemented to achieve the assessed result. The condition for promoting one course/module unit is specific to the assessment system. The grades obtained from the assessment of a course unit/module allow the provision of the provided credits for this course unit. Within modules, obtaining “credit” for each component results in credits being awarded for the module. Credits, as well as grades, are recorded in the student’s transcript, in extracts from progress reports in the case of academic mobility, and in the annex to the diploma issued upon completion of studies.
- c) Accumulation of loans
In a credit system with accumulation functions, successful completion of a semester, academic year or integral program of study is a condition for receiving a specific number of credits, in accordance with the requirements of the program. The loans provided accumulate.
Obtaining a bachelor’s/master’s degree in a particular field depends on the total number of accumulated credits provided for by the curriculum (180-240 and 60/120).
Credits can be received in advance and transferred to subsequent semesters, within the same educational cycle (credit mobility).
Credits, once received, are recognized throughout the entire period of study and their recognition is not affected by subsequent changes in programs or curricula (stability of credits).
During their studies, a student can accumulate more than 60 credits per year/30 per semester. These credits can be obtained for course units/modules and additional activities (free choice course units, courses implemented during the summer holidays, etc.).
Credits can be accumulated in modules for a single track or additional qualification.
- d) Offsetting loans
Credits can be mutually counted from faculty/educational institution to another by course units, by modules or by compact periods of study (horizontal credits). The implementation of the function of mutual offset of academic credits is possible only after the signing of certain agreements between the universities (faculties) involved and the availability of transfer requests from students. Such a partnership presupposes the existence of certain compatible curricula with a fairly flexible structure and the focus of their components on achieving the same educational goals.
Loans are mutually offset within the field of study/vocational training/specialties/trajectories, more or less approximate (structural offset).
Credits can be offset only within the same academic cycle of higher education (bachelor’s, master’s, doctoral studies).
Partnership interuniversity agreements guarantee mutual credit transfer for course units/modules implemented and assigned to the student. The competent authorities of the country’s university shall recognize credits upon the return of a student involved in mobility. The student is not required to negotiate for recognition. The agreement and the annex to the Diploma carry out the function of agreement, recognition and equivalence.
1.3 Advantages of using loans during the learning process
Measuring educational activities through credits ensures:
- a) creation of flexible educational programs through a variety of curricula;
- b) flexibility of curricula due to the introduction of new disciplines;
- c) a range of different options for the student;
- d) student mobility;
- e) recognition of compact study periods at other universities;
- f) recognition of diplomas.
1.4 Student workload
To correctly determine a student’s workload, it is recommended to implement the following steps:
- a) Maintaining records of course modules/units
There are modular and non-modular systems. In non-modular systems, each course unit may have a different number of credits. In contrast, in a modular system, course modules or units have a fixed number of credits. The amount of work for one module depends on the total number of tasks that must be completed by the student as part of the overall program of study.
- b) Workload calculation
Each course/module unit is based on a set of educational activities, which are determined based on the following aspects:
- Type of course: lecture, seminar, research seminar, practical lesson, laboratory work, directed individual training, course projects, practical internship, etc.;
- Type of educational activity: attending scheduled classes, performing special tests, developing practical or laboratory skills, written work, studying recommended literature, etc.;
- Type of assessment: oral examination, written examination, oral presentation, test, essay, test, portfolio, abstract, report on activities in the field, etc.
Teachers estimate the time required to implement planned activities for each course/module unit. The amount of work, expressed in hours, must correspond to the number of credits assigned to each course unit. Teachers must develop an appropriate strategy to make the most efficient use of time. To determine the amount of work required for a student to master a course unit/module or to implement an activity from the curriculum, the tutor is obliged, in particular, to provide specifics and methodological and didactic support.
- c) Checking the correctness of workload calculations by periodically assessing student opinions
The traditional method of calculating the workload assigned to a student to obtain credits for different types of educational activities remains the use of questionnaires for students, both during and after their studies.
- d) Adjustments to workload or learning activities
The result of monitoring or updating the course unit content may result in adjustments to the student’s workload and/or course-prescribed learning activities. In a modulated system, it is necessary to adjust the volume of material taught and/or the type of teaching activity, learning and assessment, since the number of credits is fixed. In a non-modulated system, the number of credits can also be changed and other course units can be used, since the number of credits is stable (30 for a half-year, 60 for a year, etc.). Adjustment of the student’s workload and/or educational activity is necessary when, as part of monitoring, a discrepancy is established between the expected and actual amount of work.
1.5 ECTS grading scale
Assessment is the main component of the educational process. At the local/national level, student achievement is documented through a valid grading system. To facilitate the perception and comparison of grades given in different national education systems, within the framework of ECTS, a unified grading scale has been developed to determine a student’s abilities, focusing on the comparison of students from the same system, which makes it possible to establish the place of each in the general graduate rankings. Thus, statistical information about the student’s achievements in comparison with other students is a precondition for the application of the ECTS scale being assessed.
The ECTS grading scale can be presented in table form:
ECTS score % of students who received a grade in the usual way Comments
10 Using the definition “excellent” or “good” are no longer recommended as they are considered inadequate in the percentage ranking in the ECTS grading scale.
FX – Unsatisfactory, with the possibility of retaking this session
X – Bad, with a retake in the next session.
Multi-point knowledge assessment system used in the Republic of Kazakhstan
Letter grade Points %-new content Traditional assessment
And the digital equivalent 4.0 95-100 Great
A- 3.67 90-94
B+ 3.33 85-89
IN 3.0 80-84 Fine
IN- 2.67 75-79
C+ 2.33 70-74
WITH 2.0 65-69 Satisfactorily
WITH- 1.67 60-64
D+ 1.33 55-59
D 1.0 50-54
F 0 30-49 Unsatisfactory
2 ECTS system tools
- a) Student application form (ECTS sample)
The ECTS-type application form, designed for mobile students who wish to study abroad for a limited period of time at another university, is also permitted for use in the case of internal mobility.
The application form is filled out by the student after selecting another University, studying the information Dossier of this University and consulting with the head of the department. Forming a very clear idea about the program of study that the mobile student must complete within the framework of the University precedes signing the application. The selected training program, previously adjusted with the help of the head of the department, must be coordinated and clarified with the institute manager of ECTS.
A student application form containing all information about the student’s mobility is submitted to the host university.
- b) Contract (agreement) on training with the University
Concluding an ECTS training contract is mandatory. The ECTS study contract, drawn up for mobile students who study abroad for a certain period of time, as in the case of the ERASMUS program, and used as part of the mobility arrangement, is recommended for use also in the mobility process at the national level.
The ECTS Study Contract contains a list of course units or modules that the student has already chosen to study. For each unit, the name, code and number of ECTS credits are indicated.
The study contract is signed by three parties: the student involved in the mobility, the person authorized to represent the sending institution and the equivalent representative of the host institution, who ensures that the student will be able to study the selected units of the course or module. Each of these three parties must have one copy of the training contract signed by all three parties.
The ECTS training contract guarantees the transfer of credits for implemented courses and their promotion to these students. Upon return of the student, the competent authority or representative of the sending University implements equivalence and full academic recognition on the basis of a contract. The student is not required to negotiate with the instructor for recognition.
Recognition of a compact period of study involves indicating the course units/modules that will be taken into account at the sending University after successful completion of studies at the receiving University.
- c) Offset of grades (Extract from the academic record) ECTS
ECTS grade offset is used to document a student’s realized achievements through mutual recognition of course units/modules attended, credits accumulated, grades obtained (in the national assessment system) and, preferably, corresponding ECTS grades. The translation of ECTS grades reflects qualitatively and quantitatively the work implemented by the student within the framework of ECTS mobility, and represents the main tool for academic recognition.
For interuniversity exchange, in addition to the offset of student grades, ECTS credits are also counted.
The correlation of ECTS grades with the student’s results will be included in the annex to the Diploma issued upon completion of studies.